Friday, 22 April 2016

Digital Distribution

1. Why does Steve McQueen think digital is replacing film? - He thinks that people are just trying to make money out of it.

2. Which studio was first to announce it would no longer make films using 'film'?- The first studio was Paramount Pictures.

3. What was the last 'film' to be shipped on 'film'? - The last film was Anchorman 2: The legend continues.

4. What proportion of US cinemas have made the switch to from 35mm to digital? - Nine out of Ten US movie screens have switched from 35mm to digital.

5. What was the first major film to be distributed in digital format only? - The Wolf of Wall street was the first major film to be distributed in digital format in December 2013.

6. What is the average cost of a digital projector? - Digital projectors usually cost between $60,000 and $150,000 each.

7. Why has the switch to digital meant that small independent cinemas have struggled? - Because small independent cinemas rely on rich benefactors. Digital is changing to way films are made and exhibited so small independent cinemas may find that they will have smaller audiences. ]

8. Which major Hollywood director has attempted to make a stand for digital film? -Christopher Nolan

9.  How much did the US box office make in 2014? - The US box office made $11 billion.

10. How much did the home entertainment market (DVD, BluRay, Download etc) make in 2014? - The home entertainment market made $18 billion.

11. What was the increase in home entertainment revenue due to? - The increase was due to the 50% surge in downloads of digital HD formats, which made $1 billion for the first time.

12. What was the first film to be shot entirely on digital? - Star wars: Episode II- Attack of the clones was the first film to be shot all on digital in 2002.

13. What would have been the cost of shooting that film on digital? - It would have cost them $1.8 million.

14. How much does it cost to produce and ship to a US cinema? - To produce and ship a film to a US cinema it would usually cost around $7.5 million.

15. What is the distribution benefit of digital? - The benefit of distributing on digital is that it makes it feasible to launch a movie on tens of thousands of screens around the world. The digital formats can do the same job for less than 90%.
16. What happened to the 'film' prints of Titanic? - Prints fell apart in the projectors because they had been played for so long.
17. What has happened to the number of films made by Hollywood between 2006-2013? - The number of films made by Hollywood has considerably dropped by 40%.
18. Why, according to Jan-Christoph Horak, could transferring one form of digital to another cost the film industry? - $3.5 billion between the leap of file types.
19. Why is advancing technology also a problem for digital storage?- Hard drives are not built to last.
20.How much did the camera used on The Average cost? - £900 to buy
21. Apart from cost, what other benefits does digital offer to film makers? - It is a lot more reliable and easier to use. The film makers can also make more money as digital can be shown on more screens.
22. Why, according to Jan- Christoph Horak, is digital NOT immortal? - "The problem , in a nutshell, is that there is no such thing as digital preservation medium," he explains. "There is no physical carrier on which you can put digital information that will last anywhere near as long as the analogue alternative.
23. How much has Technicolor invested in digital post production?- More than $200 million
24.What is a DCP? -Digital Cinema Package 
25. What is the Electric Dusk drive-in? It shows films on DVD. It's kind of guerrllia operation- a pop- up drive-in in an abandoned marketplace.


1. Sumarise the answers above into a 50 word explanation of the positive impact of digital distribution.

Digital distribution has had a vey positive impact of the film industry in the ways that it is a lot more versatile in what they can do with it and how it can be filmed and stored, it allows companies to save up to 90% of their costs on shipping the film and allows the film to reach a lot more places because it is a lot more compact and a lot less complex. it allows people to enjoy the films from the comfort of their own home with digital downloads and allows the film to be stored safely on a hard drive forever. 
2. Sumarise the answers above into a 50 word explanation of the negative impact of digital distribution

We can view digital distribution as a bad thing because it has taken away the originality from our home town theatres and has take business away from them, also we can view this as a bad thing because everything is very expensive with the leap of file types maybe costing around $3.5billion. but the main aspect that is a negative of digital distribution is the fact that less and less people are going out to their local theatres and cinemas because now they have digital download so now the small companies who sometimes cannot afford the projector are loosing business causing them harm to their lives.

Monday, 4 January 2016

Christmas 50 Texual analysis and representation

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of ethnicity:

In this video clip, the characters are all shown to have different ethnicity's through how they are represented by their clothing, accents and how the camera captures their actions. In the first scene there is a crab movement to a close up of the white man wearing a suit. Many of the white people in this clip are wearing suits, this is to show that they are important. Also in this scene, the man in the suit is interrupted by two white police officers, there is a zoom movement towards them show they have authority. In the next scene in the lobby, immigration officers who are white walk in, as they do this there is a black man sitting on the chair reading a newspaper and the camera angles down on him to show how the officers would look at him. The camera then zooms to a close up of the white woman who is wearing white clothing, she is seen to have order of the other staff. As the immigration officer walks in, the camera tracks his fast movement towards the woman in white and then followed by an over the shoulder shot whilst he speaks to the woman in white as she is seen to be the one in charge. The woman in white then orders a black man in a suit to do something which he seemed to understand and then the camera tracks his fast movement. This black man then rushes to an Asian woman who is hid away in the back of the hotel. He tells her that immigration are here and the camera tracks her movement through the hotel as she tells the rest of the immigrants. When all of the immigrants are together, the Asian woman leads them to a room, a close up of her unlocking the door with the keys is shown because it is tense and she is doing this action quickly. The camera shoots them all going into the room through some bars, this is to show they are trapped. Whilst the immigrants are all in this room, close ups of all the characters faces are shot to show a worried expression on their faces. A woman in the room then collapses and the camera tracks her as she falls. One of the black immigrants is a doctor and he helps the woman, a close up of him putting jam in her mouth is shot, this is to show the audience what he is doing. One of the immigrants didn't make it into the room and is caught by the immigration officers, the camera zooms into a close up of the black mans face to show he is scared. Lastly, to show how ethnicity is represented through camera movements, angles and shots is a panning shot of the dining room from table to table to show each of the different ethnicity's and how they are all segregated on different tables.

Another way in which ethnicity is represented in this clip is through editing. At the beginning of the clip it is a fairly slow pace as it then builds up to a much fasted pace when the immigration officers arrive as the staff are worried. It cross cuts to a calm scene to a very chaotic scene as the immigrants are trying to hide. There is also crosscutting t the different people of different ethnicity to show the different variety of people. The clip also includes sounds throughout, at the beginning of the clip, the music is tense to show fear and that something is wrong. There is diegetic sound in the clip, dialogue is used and some of the dialogue spoken is in different languages to show the different ethnicity.  

As well as the other aspects included in the clip to represent ethnicity, the mise en scene is shown throughout. There are clear differences between the ethnicity's,  lot of this is shown through clothing. The white people are mainly wearing suits, the white women in one of the beginning scenes is wearing an all white suit as she is shown to be more important. The black people and foreign people are in cleaning work uniform as they have lower paying jobs than the white people. The Asian woman is in suit but is still lower than the white people as she works in a small cramped office at the back of the hotel where she can't be seen. She is also stereotyped as she is using  computer and Asian people are seen to be good at using technology. When all of the immigrants are in the small room together, there is a woman who collapses. However, luckily there is a doctor who is black who manages to treat her, he says to the Asian woman I wasn't always a cleaner" which suggests his other profession of being a doctor. At the end of the clip when one of the immigrants is taken away, the woman in the white suit reassures the guests and asks one of the waiters Gino to serve them drinks, his name suggests that he could be Italian. In the very last scene, all of the immigrants are shown eating their dinner, the different ethnicities are shown from the food they are eating and their actions for example there seems to be a Russian group of people as they are very loud and look like they are drinking vodka, this is often a stereotype of Russian people.

Overall, this clip highlights a lot of different groups of people and represents ethnicity through how it is filmed to the different characters.

Sunday, 3 January 2016

Star Wars Christmas 50

1. How much did Disney pay to acquire the rights to Star Wars from Lucas Film? = $4.05 billion (2.5 billion)

2. Which other major studios/franchises did Disney acquire in 2006 and 2009 respectively? = 2006 - Pixar ($7.4 billion) 2009 - Marvel comics ($4.2 billion)

3. Why did Josh Dickey believe Disney was a good fit for Star Wars? = Because Disney are good at branding brands, working with existing intellectual property and making it resonate with fans as well as marketing it well, but they are not as good at creating original content.

4. When did the UK introduce generous tax relief for the film industry? = 2007

5. How much has Disney earned in tax rebates since 2007? =£170m

6. How many people were employed at Pinewood studios when working on Star Wars The Force Awakens? = Pinewood studios employed around 130 staff costing £6m.

7. What is Matthew Vaughan's criticism of the UK's tax arrangement (include the full quotation)? = "I think it's crazy that we subsidise British movies with tax breaks but we don't get any of that money back. We're subsidising Hollywood. We're service providers. We're not an industry",

8. How much was Harrison Ford paid to reprise his role as Han Solo? = As high as $20million

9. How much money must the film make before its stars earn 'back end bonuses'? (A back end bonus is when an actor agrees to take a lower fee for staring in a film in return for a share of any profit a film makes over an agreed figure.) = $1 billion worldwide.

10. How much did The Force Awakens take globally on its opening weekend? = $529m

11. Which 5 major companies have signed tie in deals with the film? = Pepsi, Burger King, M&M's/Mars, Hasbro and Kellogg's.

12. How was the White House linked with the film? = The White House news conferences were attended by imperial storm troopers and the president got a special White House screening.

13. The article states "only finite resources for a movie like The Force Awakens are screens and seats: you cannot force four buttocks into one movie seat." What solution have cinemas dreamt up to cope with this problem? = Exponentially increasing the number of available screenings.

14. How many screens are being used for saturation play (placing a film on virtually every screen in a cinema)? = 2,500 screens in the UK and Ireland at 670 cinemas.

15. What is the % rise in box office takings thanks to Star Wars? = 512%

16. How is the box office split between 2D, 3D and IMAX? = 54% of box office in 2D, 36% in 3D and 10% in IMAX.

17. How many mentions has the film had on Weibo? = More than 700,000 members.

18. When does the film open in China? = 9th of January 2016

19. How was the film promoted to China in October 2015? = The film studio flew in an army of 500 stormtroopers to line up on the Great Wall of China as giant billboards flashed with the message "The Force Awakens" in Chinese and fans waved red and blue lightsabers.

20. What other marketing strategy has been used? = The studio hired pop star Lu Han to introduce trailers, with the signer's band EXO contributing the single Lightsaber,

Friday, 11 December 2015



What is Distribution ? = Distribution is about releasing and sustaining films in the market place. It is one of the most important aspects of film making. If a film is distributed well through marketing and advertising then people will want to go and watch the film.

What part of the supply chain is distribution? = The third part of the supply chain is an invisible art of distribution.

What is distribution often referred as? = Known as the invisible art and one of the most important parts of the film.

What does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution? = This is when the three stages of distribution are seen as part of the same larger process under the control of one company.

Why isn't 'vertical integration' so common in the independent sector? = This is because they don't have connections with large exhibitors.
What three stages are involved in the independent sector? = The three stages are licensing, marketing and logistics.


What is licensing? = Licensing is the process by which a distributor purchases the legal right to exploit a film.

What are the two levels of licensing? = The two levels of licensing are international and national.

What is the advantage of being a major US studio? = They have their own distribution offices in all major territories.

What three different types of rights can you acquire on local level? = The three rights are theatrical rights, video rights and TV right.

What are royalties? = Royalties have to pay to the producer which are taken from the profits the film generates.

What is the most effective way to increase interest in a film? = The most effective way to increase interest is by opening the film theatrically in cinemas.

How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV? = It takes two years after opening in cinemas for a film to come on television.


What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film? = The two key questions are When? and How?

What day are films typically released on? = Films are usually released on Fridays.

What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday? = They will look for a schedule where only a few films are scheduled for release.

What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution? = A light week will ensure that there will be both screen space and adequate review column inches in the press to allocated to any potential release.

What does it mean to 'position' a film a film distinctively? = When a film is positioned distinctively, it means it avoids a release date occupied with other films with similar traits. 

Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK? = It has become difficult because the release schedule has regularly featured over 10 releases in a week.

What are P&A? = This describes the costs of theatrical distribution met by local distributors (prints and advertising).

How much can P&A cost? = It can range from costing less than £1000 up to over £1 million.

Marketing- Prints and adverts

Typically how many prints will a specialised film have? = It will have fewer than 10 prints.

How many will mainstream films have? = These films will have over 200 prints.

What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film? = A key factor in developing the profile of a film is a favourable press response.

How else can awareness of a film be raised? = It can be raised by advertising in magazines and local or national newspapers.

Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky? = it is because of the cost of print advertising is comparably high.

Why are companies looking towards viral marketing? = Companies are looking towards this to extend the reach of advertising and develop more effective communication with audiences at lower costs.

What are the benefits of a 'talent visit'? = This is to create word of mouth and advance buzz around a film.


In the pre digital film age what was distributor responsible for? = In the pre digital film age, a distributor was responsible for screening the film on certain ' play dates' and to arrange the transportation of a film to the cinema.

How much does 35mm of print typically cost?= Typically, a 35mm print will cost £1000.

How many reals is a typical feature print? = A typical feature print has 5 or 6 reals.

Why do 35mm prints get damaged? = They get damaged because they weigh a lot, around 20-25kg.

Where are prints stored? = Prints are stored in a single hard case.

How long did a theatrical release used to last? = They used to last around 6 months.

Digital Distribution

When did digital distribution begin in the UK?= Digital distribution started towards the end of 2005.

Name two advantages of digital distribution: Digital distribution is more cost effective. It is also less stressful to send films as a computer files to cinemas across the UK.

Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why? China and brazil were the first countries to adopt digital distribution.

How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now? = 2005 the UK Film Council Digital Screen network launched in the UK by Arts Alliance Media creating chain of 250 2K digital cinema systems.

Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors? = The comparatively low cost of film copies and additional logistical effectiveness of digital distribution provide the distributor with greater flexibility.

What has happened to the typical release period for a film? = Films are now available to pre order while the film is still in cinemas.

What is a loss leader (Google it) and why are companies using cinema as a potential loss leader? = A loss leader is a strategy where a product is sold at a price below its market cost to stimulate other sales of more profitable goods or services.

Sunday, 6 December 2015

June 2010 exam question

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

Topic = Film Industry- the big six

Aspect = Digital Media - computers - editing - Mad max - tech - CGI - Ex Machina , Distribution - Netflix- Sky movies - Download - Illegal - DVD - Blu-Ray- free download- cheaper- consumer provides, Marketing- YouTube - Social Media - Viral Marketing.

Viewpoint = Developing - Improving

Instruction = Significance


Post production



Saturday, 5 December 2015

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

The significance is that sci-fi action films are becoming more popular, this could mean that certain audiences will feel alienated as they may not want to watch these types of films. Digital media can be beneficial to a film as it can develop a film and make it more successful because film producers can include special visual effects, CGI characters and CGI sets. Institutions like Warner Brother's and Universal Studios will also become more successful as they will be making good films that will make large amounts of money.

Mad Max uses all of these aspects to create effects. In the car chasing scenes, an edge arm was used  to film a sequence that they wouldn't  have been able to film without it. The edge arm could shoot 5 shots in a sequence scene from a close up of Max, a medium shot of nux, to a medium long shot of nux and the war boy, then the camera pulled out to a long shot of the men in nux's car, and finishing the shot the camera pulls out to a wide shot of 180 cars and the war ring all in one sequence shot. This could not have been doable with a traditional camera. Mad max also used real stunts in their film, 80% of effects were real. To film the war boys jumping from car to car, pole cats were used from the circus, the cameras were then used at different angles to film them jumping. When editing the film, they had to cut out the wires that were attached to the men to make it look real. Ex Machina used CGI, when Ava was pulling the skin off of her robotic body. In a the scene where Ava goes into the wardrobe, she puts on clothes, this was done so it would be less money for the producers as they didn't have to CGI. In editing rotoscoping was used to film Ava doing an action more than once and edit parts of her body out to make her look more robotic. This was done to make the audience view her as a future robot.

The development of digital media technology has been influenced on how films are being distributed and shown. Both Mad max fury road and Ex Machina were films that were successful at the box office. Mad max was shown on 16,700 screens in 68 countries, it was distributed on a lot of screens because cinemas knew that the film would be popular to audiences as it is a sequel. It also was popular like most blockbuster films as it has a lot of action and explosions in, which is what the audience who watched It would expect to see. Ex Machina had a different approach to releasing their film. Ex Machina had a smaller target audience than Mad Max. To start off distribution of the film, they had to target film buffs as these kind of people were into sci-fi films, as The Avengers was released at the same time, so a majority of people went to see that film. So, Ex Machina was released on only 15 screens in US, but after waiting for The Avengers to have been seen by people, it was put on over 2000 screens. This meant that more audiences saw it as film buffs had reviewed it.

Since being screened on cinemas, both films have now developed onto more digital media technology like Netflix. Netflix is a website that requires people to sign up to a monthly membership to pay to watch films online for a small cost. Ex Machina is being shown on a site similar to Netflix, this means not only are more people able to view films for cheap, but it is still taking in money from having to pay a membership. Without the development of using digital media technology, illegal downloading could have had a negative impacts on cinemas as they wouldn't make as much money. Sky movies is also very popular to watch film on rom your TV, which also has a box office option to watch the latest films without having to go to the cinema and pay double. DVD's and Blu-Ray are still being used by people who don't have access to the other types of digital media, however this is a smaller percentage of people, and DVD's and Blu-ray are slowly becoming less popular. Overall, digital media technology has developed for media institution by making them more money and helping to provide a wider variety of audiences.

The development of digital media technology has made a big significance of how films are being marketed. Ex Machina was very clever with the way they marketed their film, they used social media. By using social media, it is a good way of advertising as lots of people use it and have access to it. Ex Machina used sites like Instagram and Tinder which are popular with young people, this can help to bring a wider audience to look at the film. As Ex Machina only had a small budget for their film, they needed to keeps costs low, and by using social media to market their film, it was free so they could spend money on other areas of the film. Mad Max had a different approach to marketing their film, as they had a larger budget, they could afford to spend money on advertisement to larger audiences. They used television adverts and YouTube adverts by showing the trailer of the best and most exciting parts of the film. People who will see the trailer will have an insight of the film and be drawn to see it as they know to expect large explosions and lots of action. Trailers are a development of digital media technology as producers can now show the film in different ways with the help of technology.

Overall, the significance of continuing development of digital media is shown in both Mad Max Fury Road and Ex Machina as they are both successful box office films which made money and the Institutions have also made a lot of money from making these films. The audiences of these films may have expanded and more people are seeing sci-fi films, so they are becoming more popular from the way they have been marketed like Ex Machina which has had the help from digital media technology becoming more advanced.